Immunolabeling with antiserum to sNPFp in the larval CNS. Horizontal views, anterior is to the top in all images. A – C. Three different levels of the left brain hemisphere displaying immunolabeled neuronal cell bodies and processes in neuropils (e. g. at arrows). LOC, larval optic center; βL, β-lobe and P, peduncle of mushroom body; SEG, subesophageal ganglion. D. A threshold-based 3D reconstruction of the brain, subesophageal ganglion (SEG) and first part of thoracic ganglia (TG). Note strong labeling of mushroom body lobes and peduncle (αL, βL, P) and axonal projections to the anterior aorta (Ao) and corpora cardiaca (CC) of the ring gland. The mushroom body calyx (Ca) is less intensely labeled. A bilateral cluster of cell bodies (at arrows) contain the lateral neurosecretory cells supplying axons to the ring gland. E and F. Confocal sections of immunolababeling in the ventral nerve cord with thoracic (T1 – T3) and abdominal (A1 – A8/9) neuromeres. Punctate sNPFp immunosignals are seen in neuropils laterally (ar) and medially, as well as in longitudinal tracts (e. g. at arrow in E) and segmental commissures tracts (e. g. at arrow in F). Immunolabeling is also seen in the terminal plexus in A8 and A9.