Expression of sNPF in the optic lobe. The left optic lobe is shown in frontal views (dorsal is up, the retina is to the left). A. Overview of optic lobe with anti-sNPF precursor (α-sNPFp) in magenta and Cha-Gal4-driven GFP (green) as a reference marker. Cell bodies expressing sNPFp are seen (mcb), mixed with Cha-expressing ones, distal to the medulla (Me), and at the base of the lobula (Lo), lcb. Immunolabeling in neuropils is seen in medulla and lobula, but not in the lamina (La). Also a neuropil basal to the lobula express sNPFp and Cha (term). B. Detail of sNPFp expression in medulla. Note two prominent layers of immunoreactivity in the basal medulla and scattered cell bodies distal to the neuropil (arrows). C. Expression of sNPF-Gal4 in the medulla (slightly oblique optical section). In addition to distal cell bodies (arrows) and neuropil processes basally, labeling is seen in R7 and R8 photoreceptor axons (likely to be ectopic Gal4 expression). D. Overview of sNPF-Gal4 expression in lobula and lateral protocerebrum (LP). In the lobula a distal layer (arrow) strongly expresses GFP. One population of columnar lobula neurons appear to terminate in a distinct neuropil (term) and have their cell bodies (cb) in a cluster at the base (part of the OL2 in Fig. 7A). E. Detail of columnar lobula neurons with cell bodies (cb) and terminations (term). These neurons have presumed dendrites distally in the lobula (arrow). Compare to immunolabeling in 10F and 10H1. F. Immunolabeling with α-sNPFp reveals a pattern similar to the sNPF-Gal4 in D.G1 and G2. Some of the sNPFp-IR cell bodies (arrows) of the lobula cluster coexpress Cha-Gal4 (G2). Term, neuropil with terminations of sNPFp expressing neurons. H1 – H3. Other sNPFp-IR cell bodies (cb) of the lobula cluster do not coexpress Cha-Gal4.