Average densities (± SEM) of FG-labeled surviving RGCs and ED1+ macrophages after inhibition of PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT pathways in Lewis rats. Significant decrease in RGC viability and concomitant increase in the number of macrophages were seen following PI3k/akt and JAK/STAT pathway inhibition (A). After macrophage removal (B), pathway inhibition-induced RGC loss was significantly but not completely prevented, indicating that both macrophage and the pathways were also involved in RGC viability in Lewis rats. Note that the numbers of surviving RGCs were significantly lower in Lewis than F344 rats. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 and ***p < 0.001 against DMSO group unless specified.