EMG recording and resulting time phases. Definition of active and resting stage of swallowing-related muscle activity. The EMG recording of one swallowing act is shown (surface electrodes, recording from the submental muscles). For the analysis with SAM, the beginning (M1) and the end (M2) of larynx elevation were marked. The activation phase and the corresponding resting phase were defined. To estimate the maximal null distribution a third marker (M0) at the beginning of preparation activity was set and two background phases were defined (Methods).