Uniform transformations. There are six uniform transformations. Translation in X (8A) or in Y (8B), scaling (8C), and rotation (8D) do not alter shape, and are removed prior to shape analysis. Translation, scaling, and rotation are not components of shape change, because shape is by definition invariant to these transformations. Compression (8E) and shearing (8F) do alter shape, but are different from non-uniform shape components. Reprinted from , page 136, with permission from Elsevier.