TGF-β1 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) administration into the left lateral ventricle induced hippocampal apoptotic morphology in a sham-operated control rat. (A) Photomicrographs show the changes of apoptotic morphology in CA3 hippocampal subfield induced byTGF-β1 ASO i.c.v. treatment in sham-operated control animal. Upper microphotograph shows a 40× magnification (scale bar = 50 μm). The middle microphotographs show details of the same field at 100× magnification (scale bar = 20 μm). The lower microphotograph show CA3 area from a saline infused sham-operated animal. (B) Data represent the density of apoptotic cells (mean ± SEM from 4–5 animals) in the hippocampal areas ipsilateral to the side infused with saline (black bar), ASO (gray bar) or SCRO (open bar). * p < 0.05 vs control; ** p < 0.01 vs control; # p < 0.05 vs TGF-β1 ASO.