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Figure 9 | BMC Neuroscience

Figure 9

From: Ethanol induces cell-cycle activity and reduces stem cell diversity to alter both regenerative capacity and differentiation potential of cerebral cortical neuroepithelial precursors

Figure 9

Pre-treatment with ethanol disrupts retinoic acid-mediated differentiation. Neurosphere cultures were exposed to a dose range of ethanol for 4 days, dissociated into a single cell suspension, plated and then differentiated with retinoic acid (A) Quantitative analysis of the mean number (± SEM) of primary and secondary branches per cell, formed in the presence of retinoic acid, as a function of ethanol pre-treatment dose. Asterisks indicate statistically significant differences from non-ethanol exposed, control cultures, * = p < 0.003; ** = p < 0.0001. (B-E) Representative photomicrographs of branching patterns observed in the presence of retinoic acid, in control (B), low (C) and moderate doses (D,E) of ethanol. Arrows point to second-order branches, which are missing in cells derived from neurosphere cultures exposed to 320 mg/dl ethanol. Scale bar, B-E, 25 uM

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