Effects of input deprivation. The VS1 dendrites of a wild-type 12L:12D animal (A). No defects are apparent in the dendrites of a dark-reared (24D) animal (B). VS1 dendrites in an animal expressing GMR-hid are shown in panel (C). The dendrites cover an approximately normal field and have a diameter similar to those in wild-type 12L:12D flies. Although certain aspects of the branching pattern are abnormal in this neuron, these types of defects were mild and inconsistent. Scale bars are 25 μm. D = Dorsal, V = Ventral, M = Medial, and L = Lateral.