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Figure 8 | BMC Neuroscience

Figure 8

From: Estrogen protects against the synergistic toxicity by HIV proteins, methamphetamine and cocaine

Figure 8

Neuroprotection with 17β-estradiol against synergistic neurotoxic responses of HIV proteins, methamphetamine and cocaine. Neuroprotective properties of 17β-estradiol were assessed using a mitochondrial toxicity assay (A and B) and a neuronal cell death assay (C and D). 17β-estradiol at concentrations of >100 pM prevented mitochondrial membrane potential changes caused by HIV proteins combined with (A) methamphetamine or (B) cocaine. In each case estrogen antagonists tamoxifen and ICI 182,780 failed to reverse the effects of 17β-estradiol. 17β-estradiol had no neuroprotective effect (A). (C) Neuronal cell death was prevented when concentrations of 17β-estradiol were ≥ 1 nM. (D) The neuroprotective effects of 17β-estradiol could be partially reversed by ICI 182,780 and tamoxifen. (*P < 0.05)

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