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Table 2 Post-hoc test results in neuropsychological tests for patients and controls: raw scores and p - values

From: Memory deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are not exclusively caused by executive dysfunction: a comparative neuropsychological study of amnestic mild cognitive impairment

  ALS N aMCI N HC N p - value ALS vs. HC p - value aMCI vs. HC p - value ALS vs. aMCI
Executive functions       
Phonemic fluency* 10.9 (4.5) 40 12.4 (4.1) 35 15.2 (4.0) 40 <0.001 0.011 0.39
Phonemic flexibility* 9.0 (3.3) 40 10.7 (3.5) 35 13.3 (2.9) 40 <0.001 0.002 0.08
Digit span backward raw score* 5.5 (1.5) 38 4.6 (1.2) 39 6.1 (1.4) 40 0.26 <0.001 0.02
Cognitive flexibility (TMT ratio) 2.8 (1.0) 34 2.6 (1.0) 38 2.5 (1.4) 40 0.62 1.00 1.00
Memory       
RAVLT Learning (∑1-5) 44.3 (10.5) 40 42.6 (8.2) 39 47.3 (9.0) 40 0.43 0.07 1.00
RAVLT Immediate recall (5–6)* 2.6 (1.7) 39 3.2 (1.8) 39 1.9 (1.7) 40 0.19 0.003 0.37
RAVLT Delayed recall 20’-30’ (5–7)* 2.7 (1.8) 40 3.7 (2.2) 39 2.0 (2.2) 39 0.41 0.001 0.08
RAVLT Recognition (W–F)* 9.1 (5.9) 40 9.4 (4.9) 39 11.8 (3.4) 40 0.04 0.09 1.00
Digit span forward raw score* 7.2 (1.5) 38 6.3 (1.3) 39 7.6 (1.5) 40 0.90 <0.001 0.01
Visuospatial functions       
RCFT* 31.0 (3.8) 34 33.4 (2.6) 33 33.1 (2.6) 40 0.01 1.00 0.005
  1. Values are mean (SD). Two-tailed p values of <0.05 are considered significant, shown in bold.
  2. ALS, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis; aMCI, amnestic mild cognitive impairment; HC, healthy controls; RCFT, Rey Complex Figure Test; *significant on one-way ANOVA.