inhibition restores LTM deficiency in AAPH injected animals. A. Protocol indicating timing of injection and start of pre- and post-training tests with respect to the start of the first training session for both the conditioned (CS-UCS) and control (CS-DS) animals. B-D. LTM assessment in animals injected with either vehicle only (vehicle-vehicle), AAPH only (AAPH-vehicle), aristolochic acid only (vehicle-aacid) or injected with both AAPH and aristolochic acid (AAPH-aacid). In all control animals, rasping movements were similar upon application of the disturbance stimulus or conditioning stimulus (B). In contrast, conditioned animals, either vehicle injected, aristolochic acid only or AAPH + aristolochic acid injected, showed an increase in the number of rasping movements after application of the conditioning stimulus (C). Thus, the AAPH injected conditioned group, showed a significant reduction in their Δrasp values in the post-training test compared to all other conditioned groups. Animals injected with aristolochic acid only or AAPH + aristolochic acid were not different in their conditioned response than the vehicle injected animals (D). This suggests that co-treatment of AAPH with a general PLA2 inhibitor reverses the AAPH induced adverse effect on appetitive LTM performance. ***p < 0.001.