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Table 2 Immunohistochemistry results for VEGF and HIF-1α expression level

From: Investigation of the mechanism of dural arteriovenous fistula formation induced by high intracranial venous pressure in a rabbit model

  Groups P-value
Control (n = 6) 1-week (n = 6) 2-weeks (n = 6) 3-weeks (n = 6) 90-days (n = 6)  
VEGF expression level in occipital cortex* - 1 0 0 1 1 <0.001
± 5 0 0 5 5
+ 0 6 1 0 0
++ 0 0 5 0 0
VEGF expression level in vessels in pia mater* - 2 0 0 1 2 <0.001
± 4 0 0 5 4
+ 0 6 2 0 0
++ 0 0 4 0 0
VEGF expression level in superior sagittal sinus† - 1 0 0 0 1 0.004
± 5 4 0 2 0
+ 0 2 6 4 5
++ 0 0 0 0 0
VEGF expression level in vessels in dura mater - 1 0 0 0 1 0.002
± 5 5 1 1 0
+ 0 1 5 5 5
++ 0 0 0 0 0
HIF-1α expression level in cortex of occipital lobe‡ - 2 0 0 1 0 <0.001
± 4 0 1 5 6
+ 0 0 5 0 0
++ 0 2 0 0 0
+++ 0 4 0 0 0
HIF-1α expression level in vessels in pia mater‡ - 0 0 0 2 1 <0.001
± 6 0 1 4 5
+ 0 0 5 0 0
++ 0 1 0 0 0
+++ 0 5 0 0 0
HIF-1α expression level in superior sagittal sinus‡ - 2 0 0 0 1 <0.001
± 4 0 1 1 5
+ 0 0 5 5 0
++ 0 2 0 0 0
+++ 0 4 0 0 0
HIF-1α expression level in dura mater‡ - 2 0 0 0 1 <0.001
± 4 0 1 2 5
+ 0 0 5 4 0
++ 0 2 0 0 0
+++ 0 4 0 0 0
  1. *Higher expression levels were observed in the 1 week and 2 weeks groups compared to control group, 3 weeks, and 90 days groups. The percentage was expressed as stained “positive” cell divided by the total number of cells under the same magnifications (i.e., 100× or 200×) of the same visual areas. The criteria used to assign the numerical values to expression levels were the following: - = 0%, + = >0%-25%, ++ = 26%-50%, +++ = 51%-75%, ++++ = >75%. †Higher expression level was observed in the 2 weeks group compared to control group. ‡Higher expression levels were observed in the one week group compared to control group, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 90 days groups.