inhibition restores LTM deficiency in laminarin treated animals. A. Protocol indicating timing of injection and start of pre- and post training tests with respect to the start of the first training session for both the conditioned (CS-UCS) and control (CS-DS) animals. B. LTM assessment in animals treated with either vehicle, laminarin, aristolochic acid (aristo acid) or a combined treatment of laminarin plus aristolochic acid (lamin + aristo acid). The laminarin treated conditioned group, showed a significant reduction in their Δrasp values in the post-training test compared to all other conditioned groups. Animals treated with aristolochic acid only or laminarin + aristolochic acid were not different in their conditioned response than the vehicle treated animals. This suggests that co-treatment of laminarin with a PLA2 inhibitor reverses the laminarin induced adverse effect on LTM performance. * = p < 0.05, *** p < 0.001, ns = not significant.