Viewpoint shift training. a) Schematic aerial view of the courtyard with possible object positions. During learning, participants looked into the courtyard either from viewpoint 1 or 2. An example for viewpoint 1 is shown in b). During retrieval, four different viewpoints were used. c) Stimuli and trial timing during retrieval. The short presentation time for the possible object positions was chosen to prevent any strategic counting of positions. Moreover, different arrangements of possible positions and numberings were used across trials; thus, remembering the correct number of an object within a trial did not allow a correct localization of the same object in the next trial. Participants got feedback after each response indicating whether their response was correct, close to the mark or wrong.