The duration of the acting task is shown for each condition. No significant difference in duration was observed among the five conditions [one-way ANOVA; F(4,155) = 2.10]. Causality scores under the four coping conditions are shown. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant main effect of solution [F(1, 31) = 50.47, p < 0.05] and a significant interaction [F(1, 31) = 12.98, p < 0.05]. Post-hoc paired t-tests revealed that causality scores under the OWo condition were significantly higher than those under the SW [t(31) = -2.81, p < 0.05, Bonferroni correction] and the OW conditions [t(31) = -8.11, p < 0.0001, Bonferroni correction]. Causality scores under the SWo condition were significantly higher than those under the OW condition [t(31) = 5.39, p < 0.0001, Bonferroni correction]. The values are shown as means and standard deviations. SW, self-performing/with solution; SWo, self-performing/without solution; OW, other-performing/with solution; OWo, other-performing/without solution; Co, control condition.