Protein kinase C activator TPA enhances cell migration. (A) OB-OECs showed an increase of migration to 130% compared to controls at 1 to 100 nM TPA in the scratch wound assay (B) Application of protein kinase C activator TPA to OM-OECs resulted in a significant increase to 144% compared to controls at 1 nM TPA, however, no difference was observed at 10 and 100 nM (C) Schwann cells showed no migratory effect after TPA treatment (D) NT2 precursor treated with TPA resulted in an increase of migration to approximately 200% compared to controls. (E- G) Human NT2 precursor migration increased when treated with the PKC activator TPA (G) compared to the control (F). Histograms present mean ± SEM of 3 (Schwann cells, OB-OECs and OM-OECs) and 5 experiments (NT2 precursor). Statistical analysis was performed using an ANOVA and the Newman-Keuls post-hoc test (***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01). Scale bar is 200 μm.