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Table 2 Changes of grey matter volume, MTI, and DTI-values in patients with dystonia compared to those in healthy controls (group comparison)

From: Structural brain abnormalities in cervical dystonia

Brain region Side BA MNI space t-value P (uncorr.) Cluster size
    x y z    
VBM
Grey matter volume increase
Frontal gyrus left 8 −32 23 38 4.64 0.002 582
Frontal gyrus left 10 −29 55 32 4.01 0.009 464
−22 60 19 4.02
−23 61 14 3.68
Medial globus pallidus (internal) left - −17 −9 0 3.99 0.011 147
Claustrum, Putamen right - 35 −16 7 3.90 0.014 640
24 −15 7 3.83
Middle temporal gyrus right 39 42 −76 12 4.06 0.009 454
Occipital lobe, cuneus right 19 28 −90 23 4.07 0.031 118
Occipital lobe, cuneus left 19 −53 −58 −3 3.71 0.022 149
Grey matter volume decrease
Precentral gyrus left 4 −22 −23 65 5.03 0.001 512
Middle frontal gyrus left 6 −25 −2 54 3.83 0.016 188
−8 −14 59 3.87 0.015 100
Parietal Lobe. Precuneus right 7 26 −56 49 3.93 0.013 167
Middle temporal gyrus left 39 −38 −60 20 3.78 0.018 192
MTI
Increase of MTR
Middle temporal gyrus left 39 −47 −69 28 5.02 0.025 1854
19 −51 −61 17 3.95
Temporal lobe right 21 42 −4 −23 4.47 0.004 2676
49 −19 −17 4.36
Inferior parietal lobule left 13 −58 −42 22 4.24 0.006 485
Cingulate gyrus left 31 −6 −47 42 3.86 0.016 104
Decrease of MTR
Frontal gyrus left 11 −1 58 −17 4.4 0.004 450
10 −35 38 26 4.23 0.006 612
Precentral gyrus left 9 −36 23 39 4.10 0.009 423
Lingual gyrus left 17 −15 −95 −12 4.17 0.007 730
Middle temporal gyrus right 19 40 −75 18 4.14 0.008 246
DTI
Increase of FA
Middle frontal gyrus left 6 −3 −16 62 4.05 0.012 149
Brainstem. Pons left - −13 −29 −29 3.94 0.016 213
Thalamus (Ncl. VPN, VPL) left - −9 −24 −3 3.91 0.017 319
Middle temporal gyrus left 39 −40 −62 18 4.92 0.001 481
Posterior cingulate gyrus right - 18 −58 14 3.66 0.031 103
Decrease of FA
Precentral gyrus right 6 50 1 33 4.85 0.001 481
Postcentral gyrus left 3 −38 −25 50 4.23 0.008 582
Middle frontal gyrus left 9 −32 22 36 5.14 0.001 950
−37 32 28 4.00 0.014 163
Inferior parietal lobule right 40 42 −62 46 5.25 <0.001 830
Parietal lobe, cuneus right - 25 −74 32 3.85 0.020 129
Middle temporal gyrus right 37 58 −54 −2 4.00 0.014 144
Middle temporal gyrus right 19 40 −76 18 3.89 0.018 269
Increase of ADC
Middle temporal gyrus left 39 −55 −66 16 4.76 0.017* 1777
−45 −77 32 3.48
Occipital lobe, cuneus right 18 18 −102 6 5.01 0.001 726
Superior parietal lobule right 7 34 −63 59 4.31 0.006 435
16 −72 57 4.06 0.011 239
Superior parietal lobule left 7 −30 −49 42 4.18 0.008 117
  1. * significant with FDR (false discovery rate).