HIF‒1α and HSP27 mRNA expression during normoxic and hypoxic aestivation. mRNA levels were evaluated in whole brain of FW (white1), 6dAE (black2), 6mAE (vertical striped3), 6dMUD (diagonal striped4) and 6mMUD (grey5) animals by qPCR. (a,d) The results are expressed as a proportion of the highest value after normalization with respect to β-actin levels and represent the means ± s.e.m. of three independent biological replicates. HIF‒1α and HSP27 in situ hybridization pattern was handled in the different brain nuclei of diencephalic (b,e) and extradiencephalic (c,f) areas of all aestivating conditions (expressed as % of FW). Statistical analysis: ANOVA followed by Student’s t test for qPCR data and by Newman Keul’s test for in situ hybridization (ap < 0.05, bp < 0.01, cp < 0.001). For abbreviations check list.