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Table 1 Results obtained in different studies on the Subjective Visual Vertical (SVV) or Subjective Visual Horizontal (SVH).

From: Gender and line size factors modulate the deviations of the subjective visual vertical induced by head tilt

Authors Sample Physical size Distance Angular size Orientation Tilt Results
Wade (1969) 10 subjects, sex no specified (ns) 91.5 cm et 15.5 cm (2.1 cm wide) 180 cm 28.52° et 4.93° SVV ± 30° (Head Tilt) E-effect on average
Decrease of the E-effect with large bar
De Graaf et al. (1992) 7 men, 5 women (age between 19-32 yr) 50 cm 125 cm 22.6° SVH 0°, ± 5°, ± 10°, ± 15°, ± 20°, ± 25° (Body Tilt) On average, no deviation from upright.
5 subjects had E-effect, 3 others an A-effect, the remaining 4 subjects were not easily determined: 3 of them tended to show an E-effect and 1 tended to show an A- effect
Tribukait et al. (1996) 39 men and 36 women (37 ans), 3 were excluded but their sex was not specified ns ns 6.5° SVH 0°, ± 10°, ± 20°, ± 30 (Body Tilt) High between-subjects variability but E-effect on average
Guerraz et al. (1998) 35 women and 34 men (age between 18 and 22 yr) 21 cm ns 20° SVV ± 28° (Head Tilt) A-effect
Van Beuzekom & Van Gisbergen (2000) 5 men and 1 woman (age between 20 and 54 yr) ns 100 cm 17° SVV and SVH Between -180° and +180° with a 10° interval (Body Tilt) High between-subjects variability, for small angle of tilt, some subjects show E-effects, others, A-effects
Guerraz et al. (2000) N = 20 sex no specified (age between 18 and 22 yr) 21 cm 60 cm 19.85° SVV 0° ± 7, ± 14, ± 21, ± 28, ± 35° (Head tilt) A-effect on average from 7° to 35° of head-tilt
Mast (2000) 1 man and 3 women (age between 26 and 32 yr) ns 120 cm SVV Angles between 0° and 180° at each 15° intervals
0°, 15°, 30, 45°...180° (Body Tilt)
A small (no precise value) A-effect for tilt angle up to 135°
Luyat & Gentaz (2002) 7 women and 2 men (mean age = 22.4 yr) 27 cm 68 cm 22.46° SVV ± 45° A-effect
Trousselard et al. (2003) 5 women and 11 men (mean age: 28 yr) 32 cm long (1.5 cm wide) 55 cm 32.44° SVV 0°, ± 15°, ± 30°, ± 45°, ± 60°, ± 75°, ± 90°, ± 105° (Body Tilt) A-effect
Kaptein & Van Gisbergen (2004) 6 men (age between 23-59 yr) ns 90 cm 20° SVV Angles between 0° and 360° at each 30° intervals
0°, 30, 60°, 90°...360° (Body Tilt)
Limited time of adjustment (30 sec)
For angle ≤ 60°: 2/6: E-effect, 4 gave veridical response or small A-effect (no precise value)
  1. ns = no-specified