Effect of imipramine and dicholine succinate on step-down avoidance learning and hippocampal expression of IGF2. (A) All groups showed a significant increase in the latency to step down as compared to their respective baselines one-way ANOVA F = 23.27, DFn = 7, DFd = 192, p < 0.0001 *** vs baseline while the NoT group was significantly lower for the recall test compared to control indicating a disruption in contextual learning # vs control. (B) There was an overall significant difference seen in the hippocampal gene expression for IGF2, while Tukey's post-test revealed differences for IGF2 gene expression between DS and Imi treated groups and DS and NoT treated groups p < 0.01, F = 6.232, DFn = 3, DFd = 33, p = 0.0018. # vs NoT & vs Imi; NoT: non-treated group; Imi: imipramine-treated group, DS: DS-treated group. All data is shown as mean ± SEM.