Application of NPPD, an inhibitor of the Rho-GEF activity of Kal7, suppressed hippocampal LTP and LTD. A) Input-output relationship for effects of NPPD (100 μM) on fEPSPs in 4 week old CD1 mice. B) Sample sweeps before (black) and 60 min after (red) LTP induction for control and NPPD-treated slices. The LTP induction protocol consisted of 3 trains of TBS. Calibration bars: 0.1 mV, 20 ms. C) Group time course for the effects of NPPD on LTP. D) Group data for the effect of NPPD on LTP (n = 5 slices/4 animals) or LTD (n = 7 slices/3 animals). The LTD induction protocol was the same as in Figure 3. For all experiments, NPPD (100 μM) was present for a 15 min pretreatment and throughout the experiment.