(a) Model architecture for a single site (adapted from ). (b) Model estimated (in red) and experimental (in blue) spectra for a sample channel and subject. (c) Topographic map of the intrathalamic gain parameter before and after training. Reduction in intrathalamic gain has been linked to increase in alertness . Thus, the model not only fits experimental data but also provides a concrete and testable hypothesis about the changes seen on the scalp.