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Table 1 Characteristics of stimulus words based on normative data

From: Processing of emotional words measured simultaneously with steady-state visually evoked potentials and near-infrared diffusing-wave spectroscopy

  Valence Arousal Concreteness Word Length Word Frequency
  M SD M SD M SD M SD M SD
Unpleasant 1.69 0.41 5.93 0.82 4.65 0.88 6.40 1.71 194.8 349.7
Neutral 4.99 0.10 1.93 0.34 4.75 2.23 6.30 1.34 195.7 152.4
Pleasant 8.18 0.38 5.31 0.97 4.83 1.30 6.40 1.71 211.3 232.6
  1. The emotion categories differed only in valence and arousal ratings, but were comparable regarding concreteness, word length and word frequency [21]. M: mean; SD: standard deviation.