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Table 4 Means of impulse of shoulder, elbow, wrist and finger joint accelerations attributed to VEL and REA

From: Control of multi-joint arm movements for the manipulation of touch in keystroke by expert pianists

  Pressed Struck ANOVA results
Variables piano forte piano forte Touch
F(1,6)
Loudness
F(1,6)
Touch × Loudness
F(1,6)
Imp. of shoulder joint accel. (rad/s)        
VEL 0.013 (0.011) 0.018 (0.015) 0.030 (0.025) 0.056 (0.037) 6.7 * 11.1 * 14.5 **
Imp. of elbow joint accel. (rad/s)        
VEL -0.042 (0.057) -0.057 (0.071) -0.033 (0.031) -0.061 (0.052) 0.0 8.2 * 8.7 *
Imp. of wrist joint accel. (rad/s)        
REA -2.594 (0.858) -4.431 (1.371) -1.911 (0.492) -3.139 (0.912) 20.9 ** 51.7 ** 6.2 *
Imp. of finger joint accel. (rad/s)        
VEL -0.016 (0.025) -0.049 (0.041) -0.012 (0.030) -0.015 (0.041) 6.0 2.5 4.5
  1. The numbers in the parenthesis indicate the standard deviation. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01