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Table 3 Means of impulse of shoulder, elbow, wrist and finger joint accelerations attributed to MUS at the adjacent joints

From: Control of multi-joint arm movements for the manipulation of touch in keystroke by expert pianists

  Pressed Struck ANOVA results
Variables piano forte piano forte Touch
F(1,6)
Loudness
F(1,6)
Touch × Loudness
F(1,6)
Imp. of shoulder joint accel. (rad/s)        
elbow MUS 0.279(0.221) 0.604(0.376) 0.067(0.196) 0.176(0.331) 31.4 ** 12.7 * 19.8 **
wrist MUS 0.164(0.200) 0.324(0.304) 0.057(0.128) 0.106(0.224) 8.1 * 7.1 * 7.1 *
finger MUS -0.031(0.066) -0.073(0.115) 0.004(0.065) 0.022(0.078) 4.7 0.8 7.9 *
Imp. of elbow joint accel. (rad/s)        
shoulder MUS -0.173(0.115) -0.015(0.156) -0.497(0.326) -0.579(0.403) 9.7 * 1.6 11.7 *
finger MUS -2.75(0.84) -4.857(1.8) -2.12(0.89) -3.78(1.61) 25.8 ** 34.3 ** 1.7
Imp. of wrist joint accel. (rad/s)        
shoulder MUS -0.087(0.177) -0.043(0.089) -0.163(0.442) -0.193(0.446) 0.9 0.8 5.7
elbow MUS 8.03(5.15) 15.81(8.89) 1.64(4.80) 3.95(8.63) 44.8 ** 10.5 * 23.9 **
Imp. of finger joint accel. (rad/s)        
shoulder MUS -0.085(0.223) -0.140(0.398) -0.016(0.414) -0.073(0.401) 0.2 1.6 0.0
elbow MUS -5.87(2.35) -11.61(4.81) -0.17(4.53) -1.92(6.34) 23.9 ** 13.2 ** 16.3 **
  1. The numbers in the parenthesis indicate the standard deviation. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01