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Table 2 Means of contribution index (CI) for individual torque at shoulder, elbow, wrist and finger joints

From: Control of multi-joint arm movements for the manipulation of touch in keystroke by expert pianists

  Pressed Struck ANOVA results
Variables piano forte piano forte Touch
F(1,6)
Loudness
F(1,6)
Touch × Loudness
F(1,6)
Shoulder            
MUSs 0.60 (0.41) 0.47 (0.35) 0.79 (0.34) 0.80 (0.27) 13.27 * 1.38 4.77
MUSe 0.81 (0.27) 0.88 (0.24) 0.43 (0.28) 0.45 (0.30) 12.47 * 2.02 0.57
MUSw 0.74 (0.33) 0.71 (0.37) 0.18 (0.26) 0.22 (0.33) 9.50 * 0.12 2.91
MUSf 0.09 (0.15) 0.11 (0.17) 0.24 (0.37) 0.41 (0.37) 6.05 * 2.14 1.08
VEL 0.81 (0.33) 0.81 (0.33) 1.00 (0.00) 1.00 (0.00) 2.40 N/A N/A
REA 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.07 4.13 0.03
Elbow            
MUSs 0.46 (0.35) 0.47 (0.28) 0.70 (0.32) 0.65 (0.30) 7.62 * 0.49 0.02
MUSe 0.80 (0.32) 0.79 (0.32) 0.71 (0.30) 0.61 (0.28) 0.74 1.77 1.82
MUSw 0.03 (0.06) 0.04 (0.09) 0.07 (0.13) 0.02 (0.03) 0.13 0.38 0.74
MUSf 0.79 (0.31) 0.81 (0.24) 0.68 (0.30) 0.70 (0.29) 1.02 0.13 0.00
VEL 0.90 (0.25) 0.90 (0.25) 1.00 (0.00) 1.00 (0.00) 1.00 N/A N/A
REA 0.14 (0.36) 0.03 (0.05) 0.12 (0.19) 0.13 (0.28) 0.88 2.78 0.24
Wrist            
MUSs 0.57 (0.28) 0.54 (0.26) 0.56 (0.46) 0.67 (0.44) 0.11 0.35 1.25
MUSe 0.06 (0.08) 0.04 (0.07) 0.54 (0.29) 0.62 (0.22) 57.60 * 0.22 1.17
MUSw 0.88 (0.25) 0.89 (0.25) 0.90 (0.16) 0.90 (0.10) 0.02 0.15 0.04
MUSf 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.02 (0.06) 1.37 1.04 1.04
VEL 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) N/A N/A N/A
REA 0.81 (0.33) 0.81 (0.32) 1.00 (0.00) 1.00 (0.00) 2.43 0.38 1.87
Finger            
MUSs 0.52 (0.35) 0.43 (0.16) 0.58 (0.41) 0.66 (0.30) 1.98 0.01 1.04
MUSe 0.70 (0.32) 0.80 (0.32) 0.44 (0.27) 0.44 (0.28) 4.05 1.19 2.06
MUSw 0.03 (0.07) 0.02 (0.05) 0.02 (0.02) 0.01 (0.01) 0.25 1.76 0.13
MUSf 1.00 (0.00) 1.00 (0.00) 1.00 (0.00) 1.00 (0.00) 0.36 0.39 1.93
VEL 0.68 (0.33) 0.68 (0.33) 0.61 (0.36) 0.58 (0.34) 0.10 0.07 0.26
REA 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 0.00 (0.00) 1.01 0.82 0.99
  1. Bolded numbers indicate the value greater than 0.5.
  2. The numbers in the parenthesis indicate the standard deviation. * p < 0.05
  3. N/A: CI value for all subjects showed 1 or 0, and thus there was no between-subject variance