Reduced survival of Brdu positive cells generated by running exercise in PN-1 -/- dentate gyrus. (A) Number of BrdU-positive cells (brown) in dentate gyrus 4 weeks after the end of BrdU injection in WT and PN-1 -/- mice without (CTR) and with running wheel exercise (RUN). (B) Lack of differences in the number of BrdU-positive cells in WT and PN-1 -/- mice without and with exercise. (C) Imaging of double labeled BrdU/NeuN and BrdU/S100 cells in hippocampus of WT and PN-1 KO mice with and without running condition. BrdU: green (Alexa 488), NeuN: red (Alexa 594), S100: violet-cy5 (Jackson 633). (D) Phenotypes of surviving cells determined by immunofluorescent triple-labeling for BrdU, NeuN (neurons) and S100 (astrocytes). The percentages of BrdU-positive cells double-labeled for either S100 or NeuN are shown. All data are the means of 3 animals/condition/genotype.