Sleep duration and lifespan are reduced in Hk mutants, while waking activity is increased. Twenty-four hour values of sleep and waking activity from eclosure to death and survival curves in male Hk mutants and wild-type siblings. Inset. Average lifespan. Number of flies: Hk1 = 220; siblings Hk+ = 219; HkY= 226; siblings Hk+ = 231; Hk2 = 199; siblings Hk+ = 216. Black dots and asterisks indicate a significant difference from wild-type (p < 0.05, Mann-Whitney test for sleep analysis; p < 0.0001, log-rank test for lifespan analysis). Values are mean ± SEM.