Rate dynamics and synchronization in a synfire chain. Pulse-packet rate (gray coded) measured in the 10th layer as function of the layer size w and the rate perturbation (log scale) applied to the first layer (simulation results). Stable (solid lines) and unstable fixed points (dashed) of the corresponding population-rate model are superimposed. A: constant in-degree. B: uniformly distributed in-degrees. Hatched areas represent parameter regimes in which no simulations were performed.