Axonoprotection, mitochondrial protection and increased frequency of mitochondria by rhEPO. Electron microscope scanning of the sciatic nerve from mice treated with cisplatin (A, C) or with cisplatin + rhEPO (B, D) show axonal degeneration with impaired mitochondria only in A and C. Here mitochondria show an increased volume and loss of integrity (arrows in C; arrowheads in C and D indicate intact mitochondria). Co-treatment with rhEPO resulted in significantly higher numbers of intact mitochondria within the axon (E) as compared to the cisplatin and the control group. Columns represent the mean number of mitochondria/axon section in 150 axons. To avoid redundant figures, axons with increased numbers of intact mitochondria with respect to rhEPO injection alone are not shown and to minimize the amount of figures lower magnification were excluded. Magnification in A, B: 7000-fold, C, D: 12.000-fold. Scale bar = 2 μm. I: p < 0.001.