Double immunofluorescence staining for TIMP-1 and GFAP show their localization in the MCA, microvessels, and brain tissue. TIMP-1 expression was seen in the cell walls of the MCA and microvessels and in nerve cells and astrocytes in the brain tissue (pink arrows; A, D, and G). GFAP expression was observed in the astrocyte cells around the MCA and microvessels and in the brain tissue (B, E, and H). Illustration of the co-localization of TIMP-1 and GFAP expression (C, F, and I). TIMP-1 immunoreactivity co-localized with GFAP immunoreactivity in the nerve cells and some areas of astrocytes in the brain tissue (C) and at the outer layer of microvessels; these areas were surrounded by astrocytic end-feet (white arrows; F and I).