(A) Following two hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), the area of ischemia in animals treated with U0126 at zero or 6 hours after the start of reperfusion (b and c, respectively) are smaller than the areas area of ischemia in vehicle-treated animals (a; coronal sections stained with 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride). Treatment with U0126 starting at 12 hours after MCAO (d) did not decrease the area of ischemia. (B) The infarct size (% of total brain volume) was significantly decreased in animals treated with U0126 starting at 0 hours (11.8 ± 2%**) and 6 hours (14.6 ± 3%*) after MCAO as compared to the control group (24.8 ± 2%) and animals treated with U0126 12 hours after MCAO (20.3 ± 1%). (C) Neurological assessment scores for U0126-treated rats (0, 6, and 12 hours after MCAO) and vehicle-treated rats (control). Data are expressed as mean ± SEM; n = 6–7. *P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01.